It has become an area with rapidly growing interest from academia and industry.
Enabling FactorsLife Cycle Processes The innovation ecosystem is not new but it certainly has many new features. Jorn Bang Andersen looks back at the evolution of the innovation ecosystem, where it is now headed and how companies can develop ecosystem strategies. The ecosystem raises at least two important questions.
How should we understand innovation ecosystems in Technology and innovation management thesis evolutionary context of global economics and innovation? How should we operate and interact strategically with innovation ecosystems from a company perspective?
Innovation ecosystems in an evolutionary context Though we pay little attention to it there is an evolutionary pathway for economic systems and transitions.
His influence among developing nations has been considerable. Japan has followed his model. Schumpeter and notions like the role of the entrepreneurs, capital, creative destruction and on the other hand focusing on particular development industries.
This concept embraced not only the primary actors of entrepreneurs, companies and capital but also national regulation of labour markets, factor markets, education and other policies into the framework for economic development. The case studies for national systems of innovation were among others Japan and the Nordic countries.
In Stanford University launched the international innovation ecosystems network in cooperation with select partners in Finland, China and Japan. Towards an understanding of innovation ecosystems So what is an innovation ecosystem in ? Notably, innovation ecosystems are based on successful examples of agglomeration whether in geographic, economic, industrial or entrepreneurial terms.
As such there is relatively little new about innovation ecosystems compared with earlier concepts like development blocks or clusters. This was not the case in e. To benefit from the agglomeration or ecosystem of that time you had to be physically present in that place and time.
Add to this that the ICT revolution has made the old distinction between physical goods and services more or less obsolete or at best blurred. Initial strategy for positioning within innovation ecosystems One way for companies regions and nations for that matter to approach which of the global innovation ecosystems they should network with and consider important could be by making an initial critical assessment of key strategic dimensions for partnering with or tapping into innovation ecosystems.
Some of these strategic dimensions for consideration are highlighted below. Leadership and partner role How is the ecosystem governed? Is it centralized and closed with one or few dominant leading players like e. Apple, Google, Microsoft, or is it a more decentralized and open ecosystem with dispersed leadership like e.
Controlling ecosystems is a new source of competitive advantage and your own company needs to review carefully how you participate and what levels of control or risk reduction are available. This is usually a very risky strategy and it might be better to use smaller business projects to tap into a number of different ecosystems and test out their benefits this way.
Supply side risks There might be superior management and transaction-cost gains derived from dealing with just one or a few ecosystems. Pros and cons of tier one versus tier two ecosystems What would be the advantages of going for non-obvious partners outside the mainstream of what is the norm within the industry?
Yet, both Russian cities have top-level talent and educational institutions within mathematics, physics and programming, and they come at a lower price than e.
Deutsche Bank did such a change from Bangalore to Tomsk a couple of years ago. And Singapore and Japan set up a formal cooperation agreement with Tomsk. In fast changing markets tier twos can quickly become tier one and the individual company will often have a stronger bargaining position towards partners in a tier two than tier one ecosystem.
Moreover, the allure of partnering with the most successful and obvious ecosystems should be considered carefully with at least some robustness testing of options such as diversifying into a larger number of ecosystems and thereby avoiding the pitfalls and risks high-lighted under strategic dimensions in this article.
Internationally Andersen has worked for the European Commission on international business, trade and technology co-operation, responsible for notably China, India, Vietnam. Andersen has published books and articles on innovation and lectured on the issue in Denmark and internationally.
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Since James Moore introduced the term business ecosystem in the term ‘innovation ecosystems’ has gained currency within corporate headquarters’, management consultancy, government white papers for economic development and academic papers on global innovation and competition.
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