Biography[ edit ] He was born in Chicago, Illinois. Bob spent his high school years at Sullivan High School in Chicago. He was the editor of the school paper, the Sentinel. He was also the valedictorian of his high school class.
Authoritarian oppression[ edit ] The word oppress comes from the Latin oppressus, past participle of opprimere, "to press against",  "to squeeze", "to suffocate". Such governments oppress the people using restriction, control, terror, hopelessness, and despair.
This socioeconomiccultural, political, legal, and institutional oppression hereinafter, "social oppression" probably occurs in every country, culture, and society, including the most advanced democraciessuch as the United States, Japan, Costa Rica, Sweden, and Canada. Taylor  defined social oppression in this way: Oppression is a form of injustice that occurs when one social group Blauner hypothesis subordinated while another is privileged, and oppression is maintained by a variety of different mechanisms including social norms, stereotypes and institutional rules.
A key feature of oppression is that it is perpetrated by and affects social groups. In such cases, there may be no deliberate attempt to subordinate the relevant group, but the group is nonetheless unjustly subordinated by this network of social constraints.
It is harder still to become aware of what I call 'civilized Oppression,' that involves neither physical violence nor the use of law. Yet these subtle forms are by far the most prevalent in Western industrialized societies. This work will focus on issues that are common to such subtle oppression in several different contexts such as racism, classism, and sexism Analyzing what is involved in civilized Blauner hypothesis includes analyzing the kinds of mechanisms used, the power relations at work, the systems controlling perceptions and information, the kinds of harms inflicted on the victims, and the reasons why this oppression is so hard to see even by contributing agents.
Research and theory development on social oppression has advanced apace since the s with the publication of seminal books and articles, [d] and the cross-pollination of ideas and discussion among diverse disciplines, such as: Nonetheless, more fully understanding the problem remains an extremely complicated challenge for scholars.
Improved understanding will likely involve, for example, comprehending more completely the historical antecedents of current social oppression; the commonalities and lack thereof among the various social groups damaged by social oppression and the individual human beings who make up those groups ; and the complex interplay between and amongst sociocultural, political, economic, psychological, and legal forces that cause and support oppression.
Social oppression[ edit ] Social oppression is when a single group in society takes advantage of, and exercises power over, another group using dominance and subordination.
Oppression by institution, or systematic oppression, is when the laws of a place create unequal treatment of a specific social identity group or groups.
These were once determined by factors such slavery, property rights, disenfranchisement, and forced displacement of livelihood.
Each divide yielded various treatments and attitudes towards each group. Social oppression derives from power dynamics and imbalances related to the social location of a group or individual.
Social locationas defined by Lynn Weber, is "an individual's or a group's social 'place' in the race, class, gender and sexuality hierarchies, as well as in other critical social hierarchies such as age, ethnicity, and nation".
Three elements shape whether a group or individual can exercise power: There are four predominant social hierarchies, race, class, gender and sexuality, that contribute to social oppression. Privilege[ edit ] Weber,  among some other political theorists, argues that oppression persists because most individuals fail to recognize it; that is, discrimination is often not visible to those who are not in the midst of it.
Privilege refers to a sociopolitical immunity one group has over others derived from particular societal benefits. These inequalities further perpetuate themselves because those who are oppressed rarely have access to resources that would allow them to escape their maltreatment.
This can lead to internalized oppressionwhere subordinate groups essentially give up the fight to get access to equality, and accept their fate as a non-dominant group.
Racial oppression may be social, systematic, institutionalized, or internalized. Social forms of racial oppression include exploitation and mistreatment that is socially supported.
Many Indigenous people, commonly known today as Native Americanswere relocated to Indian Reservations or killed during wars fought over the land. The second form of racial oppression, slaveryrefers to Africans being taken from their homeland and sold as property to white Americans. Racial oppression, particularly in the Southern United Stateswas a significant part of daily life and routine in which African-Americans worked on plantations and did other labor without pay and the freedom to leave their workplace.
The third form of racial oppression, second-class citizenshiprefers to some categories of citizens having fewer rights than others. Second-class citizenship became a pivotal form of racial oppression in the United States following the Civil Waras African-Americans who were formerly enslaved continued to be considered unequal to white citizens, and had no voting rights.
Moreover, immigrants and foreign workers in the US are also treated like second-class citizens, with fewer rights than people born in the US. The fourth form of racial oppression in American history, non-citizen labor, refers to the linkage of race and legal citizenship status. During the middle of the 19th century, some categories of immigrants, such as Mexicans and Chinese, were sought as physical laborers, but were nonetheless denied legal access to citizenship status.
The last form of racial oppression in American history is diffuse discrimination.Blauner Hypothesis Hypothesis -The disadvantaged status of colonized groups will persist longer and be more difficult to overcome than the disadvantaged status faced by groups created by immigration.
The Blauner hypothesis, analyzed in his book Racial Oppression in America (), identifies two other types of contact situations, colonization and immigration. Blauner’s hypothesis states “minority groups created by colonization will experience more intense prejudice, racism, and discrimination than those created by immigration.
The Blauner Hypothesis identifies two different initial relationships--colonization and immigration--and hypothesizes that minority groups created by colonization will experience more intense prejudice, racism, and discrimination, and experience this disadvantage longer, than those created by immigration.
Class oppression. The second social hierarchy, class oppression, sometimes referred to as classism, can be defined as prejudice and discrimination based on social class.
Class is an unspoken social ranking based on income, wealth, education, status, and power. The Blauner Hypothesis identifies two different initial relationships--colonization and immigration and hypothesizes that minority groups created by colonization will experience more intense prejudice, racism, and discrimination than those created by immigration.
Robert "Bob" Blauner (May 18, – October 20, ) was an American sociologist, college professor and author.