Advanced Search Abstract Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from to on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes.
History[ edit ] The earliest recorded account of a circadian process dates from the 4th century BC, when Androsthenesa ship captain serving under Alexander the Greatdescribed diurnal leaf movements of the tamarind tree. He noted that hour patterns in the movement of the leaves of the plant Mimosa pudica continued even when the plants were kept in constant darkness, in the first experiment to attempt to distinguish an endogenous clock from responses to daily stimuli.
Szymanski showed that animals are capable of maintaining hour activity patterns in the absence of external cues such as light and changes in temperature. Extensive experiments were done by Auguste ForelIngeborg Beling Behavioral bioscience as it affects the theory, and Oskar Wahl to see whether this rhythm was due to an endogenous clock.
He demonstrated that while temperature played a vital role in eclosion rhythm, the period of eclosion was delayed but not stopped when temperature was decreased. The term "circadian" was derived from circa about and dies day ; it may serve to imply that certain physiologic periods are close to 24 hours, if not exactly that length.
Herein, "circadian" might be applied to all "hour" rhythms, whether or not their periods, individually or on the average, are different from 24 hours, longer or shorter, by a few minutes or hours.
Konopka, Jeffrey Hall, Michael Roshbash and their team showed that per locus is the centre of the circadian rhythm, and that loss of per stops circadian activity. Young's team reported similar effects of per, and that the gene covers 7. The rhythm persists in constant conditions, i.
The rationale for this criterion is to distinguish circadian rhythms from simple responses to daily external cues. A rhythm cannot be said to be endogenous unless it has been tested and persists in conditions without external periodic input. The rhythms are entrainable. The rhythm can be reset by exposure to external stimuli such as light and heata process called entrainment.
The external stimulus used to entrain a rhythm is called the Zeitgeberor "time giver". Travel across time zones illustrates the ability of the human biological clock to adjust to the local time; a person will usually experience jet lag before entrainment of their circadian clock has brought it into sync with local time.
The rhythms exhibit temperature compensation.
In other words, they maintain circadian periodicity over a range of physiological temperatures. Many organisms live at a broad range of temperatures, and differences in thermal energy will affect the kinetics of all molecular processes in their cell s. In order to keep track of time, the organism's circadian clock must maintain roughly a hour periodicity despite the changing kinetics, a property known as temperature compensation.
The Q10 Temperature Coefficient is a measure of this compensating effect. If the Q10 coefficient remains approximately 1 as temperature increases, the rhythm is considered to be temperature-compensated. Origin[ edit ] Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes.
They thus enable organisms to better capitalize on environmental resources e. It has therefore been suggested that circadian rhythms put organisms at a selective advantage in evolutionary terms. However, rhythmicity appears to be as important in regulating and coordinating internal metabolic processes, as in coordinating with the environment.
Previous hypotheses emphasized that photosensitive proteins and circadian rhythms may have originated together in the earliest cells, with the purpose of protecting replicating DNA from high levels of damaging ultraviolet radiation during the daytime.
As a result, replication was relegated to the dark. However, evidence for this is lacking, since the simplest organisms with a circadian rhythm, the cyanobacteria, do the opposite of this - they divide more in the daytime.
The simplest known circadian clocks are bacterial circadian rhythmsexemplified by the prokaryote cyanobacteria. Recent research has demonstrated that the circadian clock of Synechococcus elongatus can be reconstituted in vitro with just the three proteins KaiAKaiBKaiC  of their central oscillator.
This clock has been shown to sustain a hour rhythm over several days upon the addition of ATP. Many more genetic components of the biological clock are now known. Their interactions result in an interlocked feedback loop of gene products resulting in periodic fluctuations that the cells of the body interpret as a specific time of the day.
These may interface with endocrine glands of the brain to result in periodic release of hormones. The receptors for these hormones may be located far across the body and synchronise the peripheral clocks of various organs. Thus, the information of the time of the day as relayed by the eyes travels to the clock in the brain, and, through that, clocks in the rest of the body may be synchronised.
There are also clear patterns of core body temperature, brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration, and other biological activities. In addition, photoperiodismthe physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night, is vital to both plants and animals, and the circadian system plays a role in the measurement and interpretation of day length.Understanding the processes by which effects operate, and the boundary conditions of those effects, is one of the primary goals of science.
In the realm of communication science, better understanding exists when we can claim how some communication-related event or phenomenon (e.g., how a news story is framed, the kind of social support a person receives during a time of crisis) affects an.
References cited. Arrhenius, S. On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature on the ground.
|The 2017 Ig Nobel Prize Winners||Analytic pressure-volume diagrams are utilized to illustrate the effects of gasoline engine design on performance and combustion requirements. Topics discussed include design, construction, inspection techniques and servicing of the internal combustion engine and its components.|
|Choosing a Program||Abstract An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change.|
London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and journal of . The Differences Between Theory and Models A theory is an explanation of causal ashio-midori.com generally starts from assumptions and proceeds to deductions or conclusions that conform to observations of the referent system.
A circadian rhythm (/ s ɜːr ˈ k eɪ d i ə n /) is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.. The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day".
How Does The Theory Demonstrate Evidence Of The Utilization Of Social, Behavioral, Or Bioscience Theories? Max Points: Select One Of The Grand Or Middle-Range Nursing Theories.
For the fun of debunking, duty of skepticism, and love of science. It is difficult to say what truth is, but sometimes it is so easy to recognize a falsehood.