Kenyan Somalis population is slightly above two million people. They are also the fifth largest community in Kenya and the largest tribe among all of Kenya's Cushitic tribes. Their territory, formerly known as the Northern Frontier Districts, is characterized by a harsh, dry climate with some desert areas.
The United States Army in Somalia Americans consider themselves to be a compassionate people, and the United States Army has a long tradition of humanitarian relief operations both within and outside the continental United States.
Never has this humanitarian impulse proven more dangerous to follow than in when the United States intervened to arrest famine in the midst of an ongoing civil war in the east African country of Somalia.
Ultimately hundreds of thousands were saved from starvation, but unintended involvement in Somali civil strife cost the lives of thirty American soldiers, four marines, and eight Air Force personnel and created the impression of chaos and disaster.
How could a mission that had accomplished so much have ended in such unhappy circumstances? Soldiers provided vital support to the stricken city of San Francisco in as it struggled to recover from the great earthquake and subsequent fires.
National Guard units in communities across the nation frequently rush to the scene of communities hit by hurricanes, tornados, fires, or floods. Army personnel have also been involved in many overseas disaster relief and humanitarian operations, generally as part of joint task forces.
Army special operations soldiers rescued almostKurds from imminent starvation in the mountains of northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey. The national impulse to intervene-to help-is a powerful one, and the U.
Strategic Setting American interest in the Horn of Africa region dates back to the Cold War when both the Soviet Union and the United States competed to gain allies and influence throughout the world. In the early s 5 the United States established a presence, including communications listening posts, in the northern part of Ethiopia and backed the traditional regime of Emperor Haile Selassie.
The Soviets, on the other hand, replaced the weakened Italian influence in neighboring Somalia and supported the authoritarian regime of Somali strongman Mohammed Siad Barre, who took power in Map 1 After Siad Barre precipitated a disastrous war against Ethiopia over the status of the Ogaden region inthe situation in Somalia grew worse.
Western aid dried up, and Barre was forced to grow ever more repressive to maintain his grip on power. He began a policy of systematic kidnapping and murder against rival clan leaders that increased in ferocity over time. His legitimacy in shambles, the army and the people turned against him in a prolonged series of riots, political maneuvers, and violence.
Siad Barre was forced to flee the country in January with some of his closest supporters. Almost immediately, a resurgence of clan violence led to the virtual destruction of any central government and to economic chaos.
As Somalia lapsed into sectarian and ethnic warfare, regional warlords drew upon clan loyalty to establish independent power bases. This situation led to a struggle over food supplies with each clan raiding the storehouses and depots of the others.
Although private and volunteer relief organizations established refugee camps to try to prevent widespread deaths from starvation, they could not handle the massive amounts of aid and the requisite security structure that were needed.
International relief organizations paid protection money to the warlords as they tried to distribute what donated food supplies did arrive. More often than not, such supplies never reached the hands of those who needed them but instead were confiscated by the warlords who distributed or sold them to enhance their own power and prestige.
The general misery was only compounded by the brutality of the Somali clans toward their rivals and the sporadic outbreaks of actual fighting. The most visible elements of the suffering-pictures of starving, fly-covered children-appeared nightly on American television screens.
Bush felt it could not ignore the situation, despite the obvious risks of intervening in a country still at war with itself. The United Nations reacted to the worsening plight of Somalia in early Almost immediately, a small group of peacekeepers deployed to the country and tried to sort out the confusing array of clans, private armies, and relief organizations, all competing over the distribution of food relief supplies.
Since UN and private volunteer organizations were generally prohibited from hiring armed security forces, they instead hired local tribesmen as technical assistants-hence the nickname "technicals.
Relief Efforts In response to the worsening famine, the United States decided to assist the relief efforts by airlifting food from nearby Kenya to remote airfields in the interior of Somalia for distribution, thus bypassing congested ports and reducing the need to send out easily looted convoys.
The actual ground distribution continued to be accomplished by the international relief organizations already established in the country.
Problems of distribution within the country continued to hamper the relief effort. In the countryside, lawless gangs seized relief supplies and used them to buy local loyalties while letting thousands starve.
In the cities, the warring political factions, supported by their private armies, amassed food stockpiles as bargaining chips and signs of their power. These rival entities, often barely controlled by their clan leaders, terrorized the international organizations, stealing food and killing whoever did not pay protection money.
Because of the increasingly chaotic situation on the ground, as a security measure U. In the process they assessed the dangers of various regions, conducted a low-key reconnaissance of 8 the airfields, and gathered basic information that would be useful for any possible future U.
That involvement was not long in coming. Unable to explain to the world why the United States, the "sole remaining superpower" and leader of the "new world order," was not able to stop the starvation, President Bush ordered U.
Their mission was to ensure that relief supplies reached the people who needed them and thus to "break the cycle" of starvation and save lives.
The I Marine Expeditionary Force from Camp Pendleton, California, formed the bulk of the headquarters, with augmentation from all the services. Commanded by Marine Lt. And, like all modern humanitarian operations, it was a joint, combined, and interagency effort.
The role of the U.Djibouti: Geographical and historical treatment of Djibouti, including maps and statistics as well as a survey of its people, economy, and government.
Introduction / History The Garre of Somalia are a sub-tribe of a much larger ethnic group known as the Somali. The Somali live scattered across the northeastern portion of Africa, commonly called the Horn of Africa, and in the Middle East.
Tribes in Kenya - Introduction. An introduction to the tribes in Kenya. Here's also a general article about the Kenya people.
The Masai are the most famous tribe not only of Kenya, but of Africa as a whole. Etymology. Samaale, the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans, is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym ashio-midori.com name "Somali" is, in turn, held to be derived from the words soo and maal, which together mean "go and milk" — a reference to the ubiquitous pastoralism of the Somali people.
Another plausible etymology proposes that the term Somali . By Ismael Mohamed Abdi. Introduction. During the last few months, the border conflict between the Oromia and Somali Regions of Ethiopia has taken anew turn.
Official name Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka ee Soomaaliya 1 (Somali); Jumhūriyyat al-Sūmāl al-Fīdīraliyyah (Arabic) (Federal Republic of Somalia) Form of government federal republic 2 with two legislative houses (House of the People ; Upper House ) Head of state President: Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed 2 Head of government.