An analysis of the examination of homosexuality in humans

Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both laymen and doctors that the terms "heterosexual" and "homosexual" became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation. Many modern style guides in the U. Gay especially refers to male homosexuality, [28] but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people.

An analysis of the examination of homosexuality in humans

Twin studies[ edit ] A number of twin studies have attempted to compare the relative importance of genetics and environment in the determination of sexual orientation.

Self reported zygositysexual attraction, fantasy and behaviours were assessed by questionnaire and zygosity was serologically checked when in doubt. Other researchers support biological causes for both men and women's sexual orientation. Women showed a statistically non-significant trend to weaker influence of hereditary effects, while men showed no effect of shared environmental effects.

The use of all adult twins in Sweden was designed to address the criticism of volunteer studies, in which a potential bias towards participation by gay twins may influence the results; Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained.

Corresponding estimates among women were.

An analysis of the examination of homosexuality in humans

Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment social and biological on same-sex sexual behavior.

Nonetheless, it is possible to conclude that, given the difference in sexuality in so many sets of identical twins, sexual orientation cannot be attributed solely to genetic factors. Gringas and Chen describe a number of mechanisms which can lead to differences between monozygotic twinsthe most relevant here being chorionicity and amniocity.

Monoamniotic twins share a hormonal environment, but can suffer from the 'twin to twin transfusion syndrome' in which one twin is "relatively stuffed with blood and the other exsanguinated".

In Dean Hamer and colleagues published findings from a linkage analysis of a sample of 76 gay brothers and their families. Gay brothers who showed this maternal pedigree were then tested for X chromosome linkage, using twenty-two markers on the X chromosome to test for similar alleles.

This was popularly dubbed the "gay gene" in the media, causing significant controversy. In the full sample they did not find linkage to Xq Significant linkage was also detected in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 8, overlapping with one of the regions detected in the Hamer lab's previous genomewide study.

The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation".

Female sexual orientation does not seem to be linked to Xq28, [18] [23] though it does appear moderately heritable. In a study population composed of more than participants, Ellis et al.

They also found that "unusually high" proportions of homosexual males and homosexual females were Rh negative in comparison to heterosexuals.

Brain structure

As both blood type and Rh factor are genetically inherited traits controlled by alleles located on chromosome 9 and chromosome 1 respectively, the study indicates a potential link between genes on autosomes and homosexuality.

In the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogasterthe complete pathway of sexual differentiation of the brain and the behaviors it controls is well established in both males and females, providing a concise model of biologically controlled courtship.

Without the gene, the mice exhibited masculine sexual behavior and attraction toward urine of other female mice. Those mice who retained the gene fucose mutarotase FucM were attracted to male mice.

According to Dean Hamer and Michael Bailey, genetic aspects are only one of the multiple causes of homosexuality. The research consisted of 1, homosexual men and 1, heterosexual men. Levay's research suggested that the hypothalamus of gay men is different from straight men.

The researchers found another gene, named "thyroid stimulating hormone receptor" TSHR on chromosome 14 which dna sequence is different also for gay men.

The previous research also indicated that grave disease had been seen more in gay men than in straight men. It had been presumed that the overactive TSHR hormone lowered body weight in gay people.

Epigenetic theories of homosexuality A study suggests linkage between a mother's genetic make-up and homosexuality of her sons. Women have two X chromosomes, one of which is "switched off". The inactivation of the X chromosome occurs randomly throughout the embryo, resulting in cells that are mosaic with respect to which chromosome is active.

In some cases though, it appears that this switching off can occur in a non-random fashion. This maternal immunization hypothesis MIH begins when cells from a male fetus enter the mother's circulation during pregnancy or while giving birth.

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These Y-linked proteins would not be recognized in the mother's immune system because she is female, causing her to develop antibodies which would travel through the placental barrier into the fetal compartment.

Successive male fetuses are then attacked by H-Y antibodies which somehow decrease the ability of H-Y antigens to perform their usual function in brain masculinisation. They think Neuroligin 4 Y-linked protein is responsible for a later son being gay.Abstract Thirty male homosexual students between the ages of 18 and 24 were interviewed and classified according to degree of homosexuality.

Physical examination, plasma testosterone. An examination of the life of the gay gene in U.K. news media demonstrates that the gay gene has become an assumed back-story to genetic sexuality research over time, and that the critique of its very existence has been diminished.

X ashio-midori.com - Free Gay Tube. Over best gay tube videos from many tubes. An analysis of the examination of homosexuality in humans He tormented Neel, falsifying, his an analysis of the yoruba people from africa . - Homosexuality Homosexuality is the sexual orientation toward people of the same sex.

This contrasts with heterosexuality, which is being attracted with individuals of the opposite sex. Female homosexuals are referred to as Lesbians. The Evolution of Homoerotic Behavior in Humans Frank Muscarella, PhD Barry University ary psychology, evolution and homosexuality Evolutionary psychology is fascinating new field.

The evolutionary analysis of the evolutionary origins of any behavior is complex and.

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